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Make命令教程

一、Make的概念

Make这个词,英语的意思是”制作”。Make命令直接用了这个意思,就是要做出某个文件。比如,要做出文件a.txt,就可以执行下面的命令。

 $ make a.txt

但是,如果你真的输入这条命令,它并不会起作用。因为Make命令本身并不知道,如何做出a.txt,需要有人告诉它,如何调用其他命令完成这个目标。

比如,假设文件 a.txt 依赖于 b.txt 和 c.txt ,是后面两个文件连接(cat命令)的产物。那么,make 需要知道下面的规则。

 a.txt: b.txt c.txt     cat b.txt c.txt > a.txt

也就是说,make a.txt 这条命令的背后,实际上分成两步:第一步,确认 b.txt 和 c.txt 必须已经存在,第二步使用 cat 命令 将这个两个文件合并,输出为新文件。

像这样的规则,都写在一个叫做Makefile的文件中,Make命令依赖这个文件进行构建。Makefile文件也可以写为makefile, 或者用命令行参数指定为其他文件名。

 $ make -f rules.txt # 或者 $ make --file=rules.txt

上面代码指定make命令依据rules.txt文件中的规则,进行构建。

总之,make只是一个根据指定的Shell命令进行构建的工具。它的规则很简单,你规定要构建哪个文件、它依赖哪些源文件,当那些文件有变动时,如何重新构建它。

二、Makefile文件的格式

构建规则都写在Makefile文件里面,要学会如何Make命令,就必须学会如何编写Makefile文件。

2.1 概述

Makefile文件由一系列规则(rules)构成。每条规则的形式如下。

 <target> : <prerequisites>  [tab]  <commands>

上面第一行冒号前面的部分,叫做”目标”(target),冒号后面的部分叫做”前置条件”(prerequisites);第二行必须由一个tab键起首,后面跟着”命令”(commands)。

“目标”是必需的,不可省略;”前置条件”和”命令”都是可选的,但是两者之中必须至少存在一个。

每条规则就明确两件事:构建目标的前置条件是什么,以及如何构建。下面就详细讲解,每条规则的这三个组成部分。

2.2 目标(target)

一个目标(target)就构成一条规则。目标通常是文件名,指明Make命令所要构建的对象,比如上文的 a.txt 。目标可以是一个文件名,也可以是多个文件名,之间用空格分隔。

除了文件名,目标还可以是某个操作的名字,这称为”伪目标”(phony target)。

 clean:       rm *.o

上面代码的目标是clean,它不是文件名,而是一个操作的名字,属于”伪目标 “,作用是删除对象文件。

 $ make  clean

但是,如果当前目录中,正好有一个文件叫做clean,那么这个命令不会执行。因为Make发现clean文件已经存在,就认为没有必要重新构建了,就不会执行指定的rm命令。

为了避免这种情况,可以明确声明clean是”伪目标”,写法如下。

 .PHONY: clean clean:         rm *.o temp

声明clean是”伪目标”之后,make就不会去检查是否存在一个叫做clean的文件,而是每次运行都执行对应的命令。像.PHONY这样的内置目标名还有不少,可以查看手册。

如果Make命令运行时没有指定目标,默认会执行Makefile文件的第一个目标。

 $ make

上面代码执行Makefile文件的第一个目标。

2.3 前置条件(prerequisites)

前置条件通常是一组文件名,之间用空格分隔。它指定了”目标”是否重新构建的判断标准:只要有一个前置文件不存在,或者有过更新(前置文件的last-modification时间戳比目标的时间戳新),”目标”就需要重新构建。

 result.txt: source.txt     cp source.txt result.txt

上面代码中,构建 result.txt 的前置条件是 source.txt 。如果当前目录中,source.txt 已经存在,那么make result.txt可以正常运行,否则必须再写一条规则,来生成 source.txt 。

 source.txt:     echo "this is the source" > source.txt

上面代码中,source.txt后面没有前置条件,就意味着它跟其他文件都无关,只要这个文件还不存在,每次调用make source.txt,它都会生成。

 $ make result.txt $ make result.txt

上面命令连续执行两次make result.txt。第一次执行会先新建 source.txt,然后再新建 result.txt。第二次执行,Make发现 source.txt 没有变动(时间戳晚于 result.txt),就不会执行任何操作,result.txt 也不会重新生成。

如果需要生成多个文件,往往采用下面的写法。

 source: file1 file2 file3

上面代码中,source 是一个伪目标,只有三个前置文件,没有任何对应的命令。

 $ make source

执行make source命令后,就会一次性生成 file1,file2,file3 三个文件。这比下面的写法要方便很多。

 $ make file1 $ make file2 $ make file3

2.4 命令(commands)

命令(commands)表示如何更新目标文件,由一行或多行的Shell命令组成。它是构建”目标”的具体指令,它的运行结果通常就是生成目标文件。

每行命令之前必须有一个tab键。如果想用其他键,可以用内置变量.RECIPEPREFIX声明。

 .RECIPEPREFIX = > all: > echo Hello, world

上面代码用.RECIPEPREFIX指定,大于号(>)替代tab键。所以,每一行命令的起首变成了大于号,而不是tab键。

需要注意的是,每行命令在一个单独的shell中执行。这些Shell之间没有继承关系。

 var-lost:     export foo=bar     echo "foo=[$$foo]"

上面代码执行后(make var-lost),取不到foo的值。因为两行命令在两个不同的进程执行。一个解决办法是将两行命令写在一行,中间用分号分隔。

 var-kept:     export foo=bar; echo "foo=[$$foo]"

另一个解决办法是在换行符前加反斜杠转义。

 var-kept:     export foo=bar;      echo "foo=[$$foo]"

最后一个方法是加上.ONESHELL:命令。

 .ONESHELL: var-kept:     export foo=bar;      echo "foo=[$$foo]"

三、Makefile文件的语法

3.1 注释

井号(#)在Makefile中表示注释。

 # 这是注释 result.txt: source.txt     # 这是注释     cp source.txt result.txt # 这也是注释

3.2 回声(echoing)

正常情况下,make会打印每条命令,然后再执行,这就叫做回声(echoing)。

 test:     # 这是测试

执行上面的规则,会得到下面的结果。

 $ make test # 这是测试

在命令的前面加上@,就可以关闭回声。

 test:     @# 这是测试

现在再执行make test,就不会有任何输出。

由于在构建过程中,需要了解当前在执行哪条命令,所以通常只在注释和纯显示的echo命令前面加上@。

 test:     @# 这是测试     @echo TODO

3.3 通配符

通配符(wildcard)用来指定一组符合条件的文件名。Makefile 的通配符与 Bash 一致,主要有星号(*)、问号(?)和 […] 。比如, *.o 表示所有后缀名为o的文件。

 clean:         rm -f *.o

3.4 模式匹配

Make命令允许对文件名,进行类似正则运算的匹配,主要用到的匹配符是%。比如,假定当前目录下有 f1.c 和 f2.c 两个源码文件,需要将它们编译为对应的对象文件。

 %.o: %.c

等同于下面的写法。

 f1.o: f1.c f2.o: f2.c

使用匹配符%,可以将大量同类型的文件,只用一条规则就完成构建。

3.5 变量和赋值符

Makefile 允许使用等号自定义变量。

 txt = Hello World test:     @echo $(txt)

上面代码中,变量 txt 等于 Hello World。调用时,变量需要放在 $( ) 之中。

调用Shell变量,需要在美元符号前,再加一个美元符号,这是因为Make命令会对美元符号转义。

 test:     @echo $$HOME

有时,变量的值可能指向另一个变量。

 v1 = $(v2)

上面代码中,变量 v1 的值是另一个变量 v2。这时会产生一个问题,v1 的值到底在定义时扩展(静态扩展),还是在运行时扩展(动态扩展)?如果 v2 的值是动态的,这两种扩展方式的结果可能会差异很大。

为了解决类似问题,Makefile一共提供了四个赋值运算符 (=、:=、?=、+=)

 VARIABLE = value # 在执行时扩展,允许递归扩展。  VARIABLE := value # 在定义时扩展。  VARIABLE ?= value # 只有在该变量为空时才设置值。  VARIABLE += value # 将值追加到变量的尾端。

3.6 内置变量(Implicit Variables)

Make命令提供一系列内置变量,比如,$(CC) 指向当前使用的编译器,$(MAKE) 指向当前使用的Make工具。这主要是为了跨平台的兼容性,详细的内置变量清单见手册。

 output:     $(CC) -o output input.c

3.7 自动变量(Automatic Variables)

Make命令还提供一些自动变量,它们的值与当前规则有关。主要有以下几个。

(1)$@

$@指代当前目标,就是Make命令当前构建的那个目标。比如,make foo的 $@ 就指代foo。

 a.txt b.txt:      touch $@

等同于下面的写法。

 a.txt:     touch a.txt b.txt:     touch b.txt

(2)$<

$< 指代第一个前置条件。比如,规则为 t: p1 p2,那么$< 就指代p1。

 a.txt: b.txt c.txt     cp $&lt; $@

等同于下面的写法。

 a.txt: b.txt c.txt     cp b.txt a.txt

(3)$?

$? 指代比目标更新的所有前置条件,之间以空格分隔。比如,规则为 t: p1 p2,其中 p2 的时间戳比 t 新,$?就指代p2。

(4)$^

$^ 指代所有前置条件,之间以空格分隔。比如,规则为 t: p1 p2,那么 $^ 就指代 p1 p2 。

(5)$*

$* 指代匹配符 % 匹配的部分, 比如% 匹配 f1.txt 中的f1 ,$* 就表示 f1。

(6)$(@D) 和 $(@F)

$(@D) 和 $(@F) 分别指向 $@ 的目录名和文件名。比如,$@是 src/input.c,那么$(@D) 的值为 src ,$(@F) 的值为 input.c。

(7)$(<D) 和 $(<F)

$(<D) 和 $(<F) 分别指向 $< 的目录名和文件名。

所有的自动变量清单,请看手册。下面是自动变量的一个例子。

 dest/%.txt: src/%.txt     @[ -d dest ] || mkdir dest     cp $&lt; $@

上面代码将 src 目录下的 txt 文件,拷贝到 dest 目录下。首先判断 dest 目录是否存在,如果不存在就新建,然后,$< 指代前置文件(src/%.txt), $@ 指代目标文件(dest/%.txt)。

3.8 判断和循环

Makefile使用 Bash 语法,完成判断和循环。

 ifeq ($(CC),gcc)   libs=$(libs_for_gcc) else   libs=$(normal_libs) endif

上面代码判断当前编译器是否 gcc ,然后指定不同的库文件。

 LIST = one two three all:     for i in $(LIST); do          echo $$i;      done  # 等同于  all:     for i in one two three; do          echo $i;      done

上面代码的运行结果。

 one two three

3.9 函数

Makefile 还可以使用函数,格式如下。

 $(function arguments) # 或者 ${function arguments}

Makefile提供了许多内置函数,可供调用。下面是几个常用的内置函数。

(1)shell 函数

shell 函数用来执行 shell 命令

 srcfiles := $(shell echo src/{00..99}.txt)

(2)wildcard 函数

wildcard 函数用来在 Makefile 中,替换 Bash 的通配符。

 srcfiles := $(wildcard src/*.txt)

(3)替换函数

替换函数的写法是:变量名 + 冒号 + 替换规则。

 min: $(OUTPUT:.js=.min.js)

上面代码的意思是,将变量OUTPUT中的 .js 全部替换成 .min.js 。

四、Makefile 的实例

(1)执行多个目标

 .PHONY: cleanall cleanobj cleandiff  cleanall : cleanobj cleandiff         rm program  cleanobj :         rm *.o  cleandiff :         rm *.diff

上面代码可以调用不同目标,删除不同后缀名的文件,也可以调用一个目标(cleanall),删除所有指定类型的文件。

(2)编译C语言项目

 edit : main.o kbd.o command.o display.o      cc -o edit main.o kbd.o command.o display.o  main.o : main.c defs.h     cc -c main.c kbd.o : kbd.c defs.h command.h     cc -c kbd.c command.o : command.c defs.h command.h     cc -c command.c display.o : display.c defs.h     cc -c display.c  clean :      rm edit main.o kbd.o command.o display.o  .PHONY: edit clean

 

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